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Key Term pramāṇa
Hover Popup Choices pramāṇa; correct cognition
Featured People DignāgaDharmakīrtiŚāntarakṣita
In Tibetan Script ཚད་མ།
Wylie Tibetan Transliteration tshad ma
Devanagari Sanskrit Script प्रमान
Romanized Sanskrit pramāṇa
Tibetan Phonetic Rendering tshema
Sanskrit Phonetic Rendering pramana
Chinese Script
Chinese Pinyin liàng
English Standard correct cognition
Richard Barron's English Term valid cognition
Jeffrey Hopkin's English Term valid cognition
Ives Waldo's English Term logic; valid cognition
Term Type Noun
Source Language Sanskrit
Basic Meaning In the Buddhist literature on pramāṇa, it refers to cognition that correctly apprehends its object without any deception or mistake. Such correct cognition include direct perception and inferential cognition.
Has the Sense of The term has the sense of being valid, authentic or standard. In Buddhist epistemology, a correct cognition is considered to be the most authentic knowledge or accurate measure of the way things are.
Rangjung Yeshe's English Term genuine

reasoning, འཐད་པ་,་རིགས་པ་

true, proven, genuine; ideal, validity, valid cognition; authentic (standard)/ standard of authenticity; valid cognizer [when related to cognition]; validating; authenticity, validity, proof, pramana, logic, ideal, dialectics, epistemology, valid [cognition / understanding], proof [of knowledge]. three kinds. direct perception མངོན་སུམ་ inference, indirect རྗེས་སུ་དཔག་པ་ trustworthy scripture or testimony ཡིད་ཆེས་པའི་ལུང་ the study of pramana [in a monastic college]. authentic, genuine, convincing. right cognition / understanding [free from illusion]. valid source of knowledge, true knowledge, reasoning, འཐད་པ་, རིགས་པ་ There are three pramanas, direct perception, inference and scripture. Sometimes the following three pramanas are discussed, direct མངོན་གྱུར་, hidden ལྐོག་གྱུར་ and very hidden ཤིན་ཏུ་ལྐོག་གྱུར་ The ཤིན་ཏུ་ལྐོག་གྱུར་ pramana has to be known through the Buddha's teaching. reasoning, འཐད་པ་,་རིགས་པ་
Tshig mdzod Chen mo ༡ རང་ཡུ་ལ་མི་བསླུ་བའི་ཤེས་པ་སྟེ་རང་ཡུལ་གསར་དུ་རྟོགས་པའི་བློ་མངོན་སུམ་ཡང་དག་དང་། རྗེས་དཔག་ཡང་དག་རྣམས་སོ། ༢ རིག་གནས་ཆེ་བ་ལྔའི་ཡ་གྱལ།་ཚད་མ་རིག་པའོ།