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Key Term pāramitā
Hover Popup Choices pāramitā; phar phyin; pha rol tu phyin pa
In Tibetan Script ཕར་ཕྱིན།; ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ།
Wylie Tibetan Transliteration phar phyin; pha rol tu phyin pa
Devanagari Sanskrit Script पारमिता
Romanized Sanskrit pāramitā
Tibetan Phonetic Rendering pharchin; pa rol tu phyin pa
Sanskrit Phonetic Rendering pāramitā
Chinese Script 波羅蜜
Chinese Pinyin Bōluómì duō
Japanese Transliteration haramitsu
Korean Transliteration paramil
English Standard perfection
Richard Barron's English Term perfection; consummation
Jeffrey Hopkin's English Term perfection
Ives Waldo's English Term perfection
Term Type Noun
Source Language Sanskrit
Basic Meaning The six or ten types of practices which lead an individual to Buddhahood. The practice of perfections is particularly important in Mahāyāna Buddhism in which the entire path of the Bodhisattva to reach full enlightenment is included in the six or ten perfections. The six perfections are that of giving, of discipline, patience, zeal, meditation, and wisdom. The perfection of skill-in-means, aspirations, power, and pristine wisdom are added to them to make ten perfections.
Has the Sense of The Sanskrit and Tibetan terms pāramitā and phar phyin imply crossing over or reaching the other side because these practices help the individual practitioner to cross the ocean of cycle of existence and reach Buddhahood.
Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism In Sanskrit, “perfection,” a virtue or quality developed and practiced by a bodhisattva on the path to becoming a buddha. The term is paranomastically glossed by some traditional commentators as “gone beyond” or “gone to the other side” (see p a r a ) , although it seems in fact to derive from Skt. parama, meaning “highest” or “supreme.” The best-known enumeration of the perfections is a group of six: giving (däna), morality (śIla), patience or forbearance (ksänti), effort (vIrya), concentration (dhyäna), and wisdom (prajnä). There are also lists of ten perfections. In the M a h ä y ä n a (specif­ ically in the D aśabhūm ikasūtra), the list of ten includes the preceding six, to which are added method (upäya), vow (pranidhäna), power (bala), and knowledge (jnäna), with the explanation that the bodhisattva practices the perfections in this orderoneachofthetenbodhisattvastagesorgrounds(bhümi). Thus, giving is perfected on the first bhümi, morality on the second, and so on. In Päli sources, where the perfections are called pãramī, the ten perfections are giving (däna), morality (slla), renunciation (nekkhamma; S. n a i s k r a m y a ) , wisdom (paññā), effort (viriya), patience (khanti), truthfulness (sacca; S. satya), determination (adhitthāna; S. adhisthäna), loving- kindness (mettä; S. MAiTRl), and equanimity (upekkhā; S. upeksä). The practice of these perfections over the course of the many lifetimes of the bodhisattva’s path eventually fructifies in the achievement of buddhahood. The precise meaning of the perfec­ tions is discussed at length, as is the question of how the six (or ten) are to be divided between the categories o f merit ( p u ņ y a ) and wisdom ( j n ä n a ) . For example, according to one interpretation of the six perfections, giving, morality, and patience contribute to the collection of merit (punyasam bhära); concentration and wisdom contribute to the collection of wisdom (jnänasam bhära), and effort contributes to both. Commentators also consider what distinguishes the practice o f these six from other instances o f the practice o f giving, etc. Some M a d h y a m a k a exegetes, for example, argue that these virtues only become perfections when the bodhi­ sattva engages in them with an understanding of emptiness (śūnyatà); for example, giving a gift without clinging to any conception o f giver, gift, or recipient.
Tshig mdzod Chen mo ༡) ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་སྟེ། ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་བསྒྲུབ་པའི་བསླབ་བྱ་གང་ཞིག་ཁྱད་ཆོས་བཞི་ལྡན་གྱི་ཕྱིན་དྲུག་གིས་བསྡུས་པའི་དགེ་བ་མཐའ་དག་སྒྲུབ་པའི་སེམས་པ་མཚུངས་ལྡན་དང་བཅས་པའོ། དེ་ནི་འཇིག་རྟེན་པ་དང་ཉན་རང་གི་དགེ་བ་ཀུན་ལས་ཕུལ་དུ་བྱུང་བས་ཕར་ངོས་སུ་སོང་བའམ། ཕ་མཐར་སོན་པའོ།།
Wikipedia wikipedia:Pāramitā
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