Nāropa

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ནཱ་རོ་པ་
Wylie nA ro pa
Romanized Sanskrit Nāropa paṇḍita
English Phonetics Nāropa
Other names
    • nA ro paN chen
    • nA ro pa paNDita
    • nā ro ta pa
    • nA ro chen po
    • mkhas grub chen po nA ro tA pa
    • mkhas pa nA ro paN chen
    Alternate names
    • Naropa
    • Nāropapada
    • Naropapada
    • Nāropa Pandita
    • Nāropa paNDita
    • Nadapada
    • Nādapāda
    • Nāropa paṇḍita
    • Naḍapāda
    • Nāropā
    Dates
    Birth:   1012/1016
    Death:   1100
    Notes on dates:   The dates for Nāropa here are from BDRC, https://www.tbrc.org/#!rid=P3085. However, other sources suggest earlier dates, with a date of birth of 956(?) and a date of death of 1040. Regarding the date of birth, see Newman, John. "The Epoch of the Kālacakra Tantra." Indo-Iranian Journal 41 (1998): 319-349.: 347, note 10.[1]. Regarding the date of death, see Wylie, T. "Dating the Death of Naropa." L. Hercus et al., eds. Indological and Buddhist Studies. Volume in Honour of Professor J.W. de Jong on his Sixtieth Birthday. Canberra, 1982.


    Tibetan calendar dates

    About
    Teachers
    'jigs med grags pa · Tilopa
    Students
    Mar pa chos kyi blo gros · ma na ka shrI · pra dznyA raksi ta · atiśa · rin chen bzang po
    Links
    BDRC Link (P3085)
    https://www.tbrc.org/#!rid=P3085
    Wiki Pages


    Buddha Nature Project
    Person description or short bio
    An Indian scholar and tantric master who holds an important place in the lineages of tantric Buddhism in Tibet. According to his traditional biography, Nāropa was a brāhmana born in Bengal, who traveled to Kashmir as a child. He was forced to marry at the age of seventeen, but the marriage ended by mutual consent after eight years. According to some sources, Nāropa’s wife (or sister according to other sources) was Niguma, who became a famous tantric yoginī. Nāropa was ordained as a Buddhist monk, entering Nālandā monastery in 1049. His talents as a scholar eventually led him to be selected to serve as abbot and as a senior instructor known by the name Abhayakīrti. In 1057, while at the monastery, he encountered an old hag (in reality a ḍākinī), who told him that he had understood the words of the texts he had studied but not their inner meaning. She urged him to go in search of her brother Tilopa. As a result of this encounter, Nāropa left the monastery to find Tilopa and become his disciple. Over the course of his journey, he encountered Tilopa in various forms but was unable to recognize him. Tilopa eventually revealed himself to Nāropa, subjecting him to a famous series of twelve greater and twelve lesser trials, involving serious physical injury and mental anguish. Tilopa eventually transferred his realization to Nāropa by striking him on the head with his shoe. Nāropa later compiled Tilopa’s instructions and transmitted them to his own disciples. (Source: "Nāropa." In The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, 576. Princeton University Press, 2014. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46n41q.27.)

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    Tibetan Names[edit]

    Tibetan: ནཱ་རོ་པ་

    Wylie:

    Other transliterations in use:

    Sanskrit Names[edit]

    Dates[edit]

    Born: 1012 (956?) - See Newman, John. "The Epoch of the Kālacakra Tantra." Indo-Iranian Journal 41 (1998): 319-349.: 347, note 10.[1]
    Died: 1100 (1040?) - See Wylie, T. "Dating the Death of Naropa." L. Hercus et al., eds. Indological and Buddhist Studies. Volume in Honour of Professor J.W. de Jong on his Sixtieth Birthday. Canberra, 1982.

    Other Biographical Information[edit]

    Main Students[edit]

    chos kyi blo gros
    ma na ka shrI
    pra dznyA raksi ta

    Main Teachers[edit]

    'jigs med grags pa
    tai lo pa

    Writings[edit]

    Texts associated with Naropa from Otani University Peking Tripitaka Online Search:

    dbang mdor bstan pa'i 'grel bshad don dam pa bsdus pa zhes bya ba / (paramArthasaMgraha-nAma-sekoddezaTIkA.) [A] nAro., [Tr] dharmadhara., [Tr] grags pa rgyal mtshan / (kIrtidhavaja.), [Rev] rin chen rgyal mtshan / (ratnadhavaja.) [P. No.] 2068, rgyud 'grel, ga 258b3-337b4 (vol.47, p.105) [D. No.] 1351, gyud, na 220b1-289a7. [N] ga 244a2-321a7. [Kinsha] 69, ga 321b1 (p.163-1-1)

    dpa' bo gcig pa he ru ka'i sgrub thabs zhes bya ba / (ekavIraherukasAdhana-nAma.) [A] nADapAda. [P. No.] 2194, rgyud 'grel, pa 125b3-126a8 (vol.51, p.288) [D. No.] 1472, , zha 74a4-75a1. [N] pa 129a4-130a3. [Kinsha] 196, pa 162a2 (p.82-1-2)

    rdo rje rnal 'byor ma'i sgrub thabs / (vajrayoginIsAdhana.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] prajAkIrti., [Tr] sumatikIrti. [P. No.] 2290, rgyud 'grel, pha 309b2-310a3 (vol.52, p.234) [D. No.] 1579, , 'a 10a5-10b4. [N] pha 284b2-285a3. [Kinsha] 292, pha 393b6 (p.197-4-6)

    dpal dgyes pa rdo rje'i sgrub thabs / (zrIhevajrasAdhana.) [A] nADapAda. [P. No.] 2415, rgyud 'grel, zha 548a8-550b8 (vol.56, p.301) [D. No.] 1292, , ta 151b7-154a2. [N] zha 481b6-484a6. [Kinsha] 419, zha 645b4 (p.325-4-4)

    rin po che'i 'od ces bya ba / (ratnaprabhA-nAma.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] rin chen rgyal mtshan / (ratnadhvaja.), [Tr] vajraguNabhadra. [P. No.] 2474, rgyud 'grel, za 243b3-252a1 (vol.57, p.99) [D. No.] 1342, , ta 350b5-358a4. [N] za 241b6-250b4. [Kinsha] 478, za 320a3 (p.160-3-3)

    dbang chos rten 'brel 'gro ldog (dharmAbhiSekamArgasaMhati.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] chos 'bar / (dharmajvAla.), [Tr] te phu ba / (pArAvatapAda.) [P. No.] 2618, rgyud 'grel, la 137a1-138a6 (vol.59, p.103) [D. No.] 1747, , sha 117b5-118b7. [N] la 123b2-124b4. [Kinsha] 621, la 167a4 (p.84-4-4)

    dpal lha mo (nag mo) chen mo'i sgrub thabs / (zrIdevImahAkAlIsAdhanopAyikA.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] lokazrI. [P. No.] 2647, rgyud 'grel, la 301b4-307a8 (vol.59, p.169) [D. No.] 1781, , sha 275a5-280a5. [N] la 275b1-282a4. [Kinsha] 650, la 377b1 (p.191-4-1)

    rdo rje'i glu / (vajragIti.) [A] nADapAda. [P. No.] 3136, rgyud 'grel, tsi 168a2-168a4 (vol.69, p.139) [D. No.] 2288, , zhi 152b6-153a1. [N] tsi 156b5-156b6. [Kinsha] 1140, tsi 219a4 (p.110-3-4)

    rdo rje'i glu / (vajragIti.) [A] nADapAda. [P. No.] 3137, rgyud 'grel, tsi 168a4-168a8 (vol.69, p.139) [D. No.] 2289, , zhi 153a1-153a4. [N] tsi 156b7-157a3. [Kinsha] 1141, tsi 219b1 (p.111-3-1)

    rje btsun yi ge brgya pa'i sems dpa' gsum gyi bsgom pa'i thabs / (zatAkSarabhaTTArakasya sattvatrayabhAvanA.) [A] nADapAda. [P. No.] 3225, rgyud 'grel, tshi 30b5-36a5 (vol.69, p.202) [D. No.] 2383, , zi 14b1-18b4. [N] tshi 26a4-30b2. [Kinsha] 1229, tshi 33b3 (p.17-4-3)

    bcom ldan 'das dpal 'khol lo sdom pa'i sgrub thabs zhes bya ba / (bhagavacchrIcajrasaMvarasAdhana-nAma) [A] 'jigs med grags pa / (abhayakIrti.), [Rev] mi bskyod pa / (akSobhya.), [Tr] mar chos kyi blo gros / (dharmamari.), [Tr] na ro pa / (nADapAda.) [P. No.] 4614, rgyud 'grel, pu 59a6-71b8 (vol.82, p.4-9) [D. No.] -. [N] pu 61a3-72b7. [Kinsha] 2613, pu 89b1 (p.47-1-1)

    dpal gsang ba rin po che yid bzhin nor bu zhes bya ba / (zrIguhyaratnacintAmaNi-nAma) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] mar chos kyi blo gros / (dharmamari.), [Tr] na ro pa / [P. No.] 4623, rgyud 'grel, pu 95a5-100a4 (vol.82, p.18-20) [D. No.] 1524, , za 79a1-82b6. [N] pu 94b2-98b6. [Kinsha] 2622, pu 145b1 (p.75-1-1)

    dpal 'khor lo bde mchog gi rnam par 'phrul pa dang yul nyi shu rtsa bzhi'i rgyu mtshan bstan pa / ([zrIcakrazambaravikurvaNa, caturviMzatidezapramANazAsana.]) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] mar pa / [P. No.] 4628, rgyud 'grel, pu 124a4-129a7 (vol.82, p.30-32) [D. No.] -. [N] pu 120b1-125a2. [Kinsha] 2627, pu 184b1 (p.93-4-1)

    snyan rgyud rdo rje'i tshig rkang zhes bya ba / (karNatantravajragAthA-nAma.) [Tr] mar pa chos kyi blo gros / (dharmamati.), [Tr] grub na ro / (nADapAda.) [P. No.] 4632, rgyud 'grel, pu 140b1-142b5 (vol.82, p.37) [D. No.] 2338, , zhi 302b6-304b4. [N] pu 134b6-137a1. [Kinsha] 2631, pu 205b1 (p.105-1-1)

    dpal rdo rje rnal 'byor ma'i gsang ba'i sgrub thabs zhes bya ba / (zrIvajrayoginIguhyasAdhana-nAma.) [A] mahA nADapAda. [P. No.] 4668, rgyud 'grel, phu 11a4-13b5 (vol.82, p.108-109) [D. No.] -. [N] phu 11b3-14a3. [Kinsha] 2667, phu 14b1 (p.9-1-1)

    rdo rje rnal 'byor ma'i sgrub thabs / (vajrayoginIsAdhana.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] mar pa chos kyi blo gros / (dharmamati.) [P. No.] 4673, rgyud 'grel, phu 22a2-22b3 (vol.82, p.113) [D. No.] -. [N] phu 22b2-23a5. [Kinsha] 2672, phu 29b1 (p.15-4-1)

    dpal gsang ba 'dus pa'i man ngag rim pa lnga pa zhes bya ba / (zrIguhyasamAjopadezapaJcakrama-nAma.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] mar pa chos kyi blo gros /, [Tr] na ro pa / [P. No.] 4789, rgyud 'grel, zhu 12a6-24a4 (vol.85, p.277281) [D. No.] -. [N] zhu 12a5-24a3. [Kinsha] 2788, zhu 15b1 (p.9-2-1)

    rim pa lnga bsdus pa gsal ba / (paJcakramasaMgrahaprabhAva.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] mar pa chos kyi blo gros / (dharmamati.), [Tr] na ro pa / (nADapAda.) [P. No.] 4790, rgyud 'grel, zhu 24a4-26a8 (vol.85, p.281-282) [D. No.] 2333, , zhi 267a7-278a7. [N] zhu 24a3-26a3. [Kinsha] 2789, zhu 30b2 (p.17-1-2)

    dpal ldan lha mo (nag mo) chen mo'i gsang ba'i bsgrub thabs zhes bya ba / (zrImatIdevImahAkAlIguhyasAdhana-nAma.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] mar po chos kyi blo gros / (dharmamati.) [P. No.] 4929, rgyud 'grel, zu 281b1-283a5 (vol.86, p.164165) [D. No.] -. [N] zu 283b1-285a4. [Kinsha] 2928, zu 382a4 (p.192-2-4)

    bla ma sgrubs pa / (gurusiddhi.) [A] nADapAda., [Tr] vibhUticandra. [P. No.] 5016, rgyud 'grel, yu 31a2-32b7 (vol.87, p.14-15) [D. No.] -. [N] yu 31a-32b. [Kinsha] 3015, yu 38a1 (p.20-1-1)

    Texts associated with Naropa at TBRC:

    bde mchog gi rnam par sprul pa dang yul nyi shu rtsa bzhi'i rgyu mtshan [tbrc holdings 1]

    bla ma nA ro'i gdams ngag [tbrc holdings 1]

    bla ma sgrub pa (nang ltar sgrub pa) paro lama ngodrup and sherab drimey 1979-1981 [tbrc holdings 1]

    brtag gnyis las brtag pa phyi ma bshad pa [s.l.] [s.n.] [n.d.] [tbrc holdings 1]

    bsre 'pho'i lam gyi snying po bka' yang dag pa'i tshad ma zhes bya ba mkha' 'gro ma'i man ngag darjeeling kargyu sungrab nyamso khang 1978-1985 [tbrc holdings 1]

    dpal lha mo nag mo'i dngos grub thams cad 'byung ba'i rgyud paro lama ngodrub and sherab drimey 1982 [tbrc holdings 1]

    rdo rje'i tshig rkang snying po bsdus pa'i dka' 'grel slob dpon chen po nA ro pas mdzad pa [tbrc holdings 1]

    rim bzhi lam slong [tbrc holdings 1]

    snyan rgyud rdo rje'i tshig rkang [tbrc holdings 1]

    spyod pa chos kyi glu zhes bya ba 'byung ba ro snyoms kyi gdams ngag paro lama ngodrup and sherab drimey 1979-1981 [tbrc holdings 1]

    spyod pa chos kyi glu zhes bya ba 'byung ba ro snyoms kyi gdams ngag darjeeling kargyu sungrab nyamso khang 1978-1985 [tbrc holdings 1]

    Writings about Nāropa[edit]

    Tibetan Texts at TBRC:

    nA ro pa'i rnam thar gangtok gonpo tseten 1978 [tbrc holdings 1]

    nA ro pa'i rnam thar ngo mtshar rmad 'byung urgyen dorje sumra, h.p. 1976 [tbrc holdings 1]

    nA ro paN chen gyi rnam thar

    paN chen nA ro pa ye shes dngos grub kyi rnam thar bir. distt. kangra, h.p. tsondu senghe yorey tsang 2006 [tbrc holdings tbrc holds inkprint and digitally scanned images, tiffs and pdf files; scanned for preservation purposes only; not for distribution]

    rje btsun chen po nA ro pa'i rnam par thar pa dad pa'i shing rta [lha sa] [s.n.] [2004] [tbrc holdings 1]

    rje btsun ti lo pa'i rnam mgur dang dpal nA ro pa'i rnam thar bsdus pa zi ling mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang 1992 [tbrc holdings 1]

    tai lo rA ro'i rnam thar sde dge sde dge par khang chen mo 1998? [tbrc holdings 1]

    English

    • Guenther, Herbert V., trans. The Life and Teaching of Nāropa: Translated from the original Tibetan with philosophical commentary based on the oral transmission. UNESCO Collection of Representative Works Tibetan Series. London, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1971. Clarendon Press, 1963.
    • Mullin, Glenn. Readings on the Six Yogas of Naropa. Ithaca, N. Y.: Snow Lion Publications, 1997.
    • Trungpa, Chögyam and Sherab Chödzin. Illusion's Game: The Life and Teaching of Naropa. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1994.
    • Tucci, Giuseppe. 1935. "À Propos the Legend of Nāropā". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (October), 677-688.
    • Wylie, T. "Dating the Death of Naropa." L. Hercus et al., eds. Indological and Buddhist Studies. Volume in Honour of Professor J.W. de Jong on his Sixtieth Birthday. Canberra, 1982.

    French
    <Please add citations>


    German
    <Please add citations>

    • Grünwedel, Albert. Die Legenden des Nā-ro-pā, des Hauptbertreters des Nekromanten-und Hexentums, Leipzig, 1933.
    • Wilhelm, Friedrich. Prufung und Initiation im Buche Pausya und in der Biographie des Naropa. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1965.

    Italian

    • Nāropā. L'iniziazione, Traduzione e commento della Sekoddeśaṭikā di Nāropā. Milano: Adelphi, 1994.

    <Please add citations>

    Online

    Publications[edit]

    • The Sekoddeśaṭīkā by Nāropā (Paramārthasaṃgraha). Critical Edition of the Sanskrit Text by Francesco Sferra. Critical Edition of the Tibetan Translation by Stefania Merzagora. Roma: Istituto Italiano Per l'Africa e l'Oriente, 2006.

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    Footnotes

    1. John Newman says in note 10: On Srī Nāropa’s nirvana, see Wylie 1982. I follow Wylie’s argument in dating Nāropa’s death, but note that his main source is Alaka Chattopadhyaya, Atīśa and Tibet. For additional important Tibetan sources that also place Nāropa’s death shortly before Atīśa's departure for Tibet, see Eimer 1979: 172–74; dPa' bo gTsug lag phreng ba 1545–64: 673. Also, Wylie concludes: "Let the historical record show that Nāropa was born in A.D. 956 and died in A.D. 1040..." (Wylie 1982: 691). Although Wylie has made a strong case for dating Nāropa’s death at ca. 1040 CE, the evidence in support of the birth date is weak. As a rule we must be very skeptical of the miraculously precise dates late Tibetan sources provide for events that occurred hundreds of years earlier in India. These dates are always given in the Tibetan element animal sexagenary cycle which was never used in India, and which only became current in Tibet in the 13th century. In other words, we cannot rely too heavily on Tibetan reconstructions of the chronology of Indian Buddhism until we thoroughly understand the presuppositions, methods, and source materials of the Tibetan historians and hagiographers. - Newman, John. "The Epoch of the Kālacakra Tantra." Indo-Iranian Journal 41 (1998): 319-349.