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In Sanskrit, lit. “inversion,” but referring to “perverted,” “corrupted,” or “inverted” views (the Chinese translation diandao literally means “upside down”) or simply “error.” There is a Standard list of four “inverted views” that cause sentient beings to remain subject to the cycle of rebirth (samsära). The four are (1) to view as pleasurable what is in fact painful or suffering (d u h k h a ), (2) to see as permanent what is in fact impermanent (anitya), (3) to see as pure what is in fact impure (aśubha), and (4) to see as having seif what is in fact devoid of seif (anätman). These four inversions are corrected through insight into the true nature of reality, which prompts the realization that the aggregates (skandha) are in fact suffering, impermanent, impure, and devoid of seif. In the tathägatagarbha literature, these four putatively correct views are in turn said also to be inversions from the standpoint of the tathägatagarbha, which is said to possess four perfect qualities (gunapäramitä): bliss, permanence, purity, and selfhood.
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perverted view, wayward view, misconception, perverse, of the nature of a perverted view, reverse, perversion; perverted [view], misconception, reverse, in error, perversion, in the wrong direction. Skt. viparyasa, to go completely in the wrong direction / wayward view, misconception, perverse, of the nature of a perverted view, reverse, incorrect, deceptive, fallacious, perversity.