Nirmāṇakāya

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Key Term nirmāṇakāya
Hover Popup Choices nirmāṇakāya; sprul sku; emanation body
In Tibetan Script སྤྲུལ་སྐུ།
Wylie Tibetan Transliteration sprul sku
Devanagari Sanskrit Script निर्माणकाय
Romanized Sanskrit nirmāṇakāya
Tibetan Phonetic Rendering trulku
Sanskrit Phonetic Rendering nirmāṇakāya
Chinese Script 化身
Chinese Pinyin haushen
Japanese Transliteration keshin
Korean Transliteration hwasin
English Standard emanation body
Richard Barron's English Term nirmanakaya
Jeffrey Hopkin's English Term emanation body
Term Type Noun
Source Language Sanskrit
Basic Meaning An fully enlightened Buddha is said to have the power to manifest in many forms in order to help the sentient beings. The emanation body of a buddha, as the third of the three bodies of a buddha, refers to the many forms in which a buddha can manifest and which are accessible to ordinary sentient beings. Buddhist scholars present four types of emanation bodies: emanation as supreme being, emanation as rebirth, emanation as artisan and emanation in diverse forms.
Has the Sense of Emanation body is considered as an apparitional form and thus not the actual physical form of a buddha but one projected for the purpose of helping sentient beings. This concept became later conflated with the Tibetan culture of religious incarnation and many lamas who are considered to be rebirths of earlier ones are also referred to as trulku.
Definitions
Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism In Sanskrit, “emanation body,” or “transfor­ mation body”; according to the M a h à y à n a descriptions, one of the three bodies (trikäya) of a buddha, together with the dharmakAya andthesambhogakäya. Inaccountswhereabud­ dha is said to have two bodies, the dharmakäya constitutes one body and the r ü p a k ä y a constitutes the other, with the rūpakāya subsuming both the sambhogakäya and the nirmānakāya. The term nirmānakāya may have been employed originally to describe the doubles of himself that the Buddha is sometimes said to display in order to teach multiple audiences simulta- neously. (Cf. m ahA prâtihärya.) In the Mahäyäna, however, the emanation body became the only body of a buddha to appear to ordinary beings, implying that the “historical Buddha” was in fact a display intended to inspire the world; in the debates about whether the Buddha feit hunger or suffered physical pain, the Mahäyäna schools as well as several of the mainstream Buddhist schools assertedthathedidnot,butratherappeared to do so in order to conform to worldly conventions. The nirmānakāya of a buddha is said to be able to appear in any form, including divinities, humans, animals, and inanimate objects; some texts even suggest that a buddha may appear as a bridge or a cooling breeze. The form of the nirmãnakāya that appeared in India as Śākyamuni is called a “supreme emanation body”(uttamanirmänakäya). Allsuchnirmānakāyasaresaidto perform twelve deeds, from waiting in t u s i t a heaven for their last rebirth to entering parinirväna. Another type of nirmānakāyaisthejanmanirmänakAya, the“birth”or“created” emanation body, which is the form of a buddha when he appears as a divinity, human, or animal to benefit sentient beings, or as a beneficial inanimate object, such as a bridge. A third type is the śilpanirm ãnakàya, an “artisan emanation body,” in which a buddha appears in the world as an artisan or as a work of art. The Sanskrit term nirmānakāya is translated into Tibetan as sp ru l sku, spelled in English as tulku.
Dung dkar Tshig mdzod Chen mo འདི་ནི་སྐུ་གསུམ་གྱི་ནང་གི་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་སྟེ། སངས་རྒྱས་རྣམས་རང་ཉིད་སངས་རྒྱས་ཟིན་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་སེམས་ཅན་གྱི་དོན་དུ་གང་ལ་གང་འཚམས་པའི་སྤྲུལ་པ་སྣ་ཚོགས་བསྟན་ནས་དོན་མཛད་པ།
RigpaWiki rigpa:Nirmanakaya