Ś ś Ā ā ṇ ṅ Ī ī ṁ ṃ ñ ṛ Ṣ ṣ Ū ū Ḍ ḍ Ṭ ṭ ḥ
ō ö Ö ü Śākyamuni
The disciples of the Buddha who aspire to attain individual liberation or nirvāṇa. The final goal of the Hearers is to reach arhathood, a state in which one has totally eliminated the inner problems of attachment, hatred and ignorance, the main causes rebirth in this cycle of existence. There are four stages of a śrāvaka path including eight phases.